Best St. John’s Wort Supplements

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After over 13 months of research, and 48 products reviewed, we choose Gaia Herbs St. John’s Wort as the best for most people. A lot of the supplements we reviewed could have easily replaced our top choice. But Gaia Herb’s clean ingredient formula and wide availability helped it grow its way to the top of our rankings.

Best St. John’s Wort Supplement Brands

1. Gaia Herbs St. John’s Wort

Gaia Herbs St. John’s Wort brings to the market one of the cleanest ingredient and most effective formulations providing 1350 mg of St. John’s Wort extract (flowering tops and buds) with 2.7 mg (.2%) of hypericin per serving. 

The ingredient profile is very clean (which you can see for yourself), it doesn’t have any filler ingredients are hard to pronounce words in their formula. Best of all, it doesn’t use gelatin as its capsule base, instead it uses vegetable glycerin and vegetable cellulose which is suitable for vegetarians and vegans alike. 

Not only that, since the formula is pretty straight forward, it leaves little to no room for users to have a poor experience due to additive ingredients. The brand does a good job at labeling its formula, which is pretty effective when compared to the other products on the market. Gaia Herbs is definitely one of the leading brands for the herbal market in the United States. 

Gaia Herbs has the top st john worts reviews on the market, making it a great choice for health conscious users looking for a trust worthy brand that has zero additives and fillers. On top of that, it also has an effective active ingredient dosage making it one of the strongest st johns wort capsules on the market. 

Key Features
  • 1350 mg of St. John’s Wort extract (flowering tops and buds) with 2.7 mg (.2%) of hypericin per serving.
  • Vegan and Vegetarian friendly ingredient formula
  • Made at their Certified Organic farm in NC, USA.
  • Every 3 capsules contains 2,250 mg of dry herb equivalent
Pros
  • Vegan friendly capsules (no gelatin)
  • Filler free ingredient formula
  • Capsules are easy to take
  • Trusted supplement brand that can be found easily in many retail stores
Cons
  • High potency can cause stomach irritation in some users

Recap

Gaia Herbs St. John’s Wort is a solid supplement that you can find in a lot of health food stores, which can be a good thing. For one, it means the brand is trusted enough to be sold at Whole Foods, or smaller retail chains. Aside from that its a supplement brand that is often bought and recommended by many health practitioners.

Most notable features: The best thing about this st john’s wort supplement is its testimonials, for sure. A ton of positive reviews drops the ‘risk’ factor on buying low grade supplements online. The effective ingredient profile is also a big plus, giving users a research backed dosage is something hard.

Why we like it: Clean, simple, and vegetarian friendly. No random filler ingredients, doesn’t cut corners on formulation, and can be found in many retail stores. Made by one of the more trusted brands on the market which adds an extra piece of mind.

How to make the most of it: These capsules can last you quite a bit especially if you’re taking one capsule at a time. However, if you’re taking the recommend serving size (3 capsules) You’ll be refilling sooner than you think. The best way to take st john’s wort is usually in the mornings or a couple hours before bed. Choose your more preferred way and stay consistent so you can monitor your results. 

Also consider: For another reliable brand of st. john’s wort that has a similar clean ingredient profile, check out Paradise Herbs St. John’s Wort Extract

2. Solaray Organic St. John’s Wort

Solaray Organic St. John’s Wort is one of the few hyperforin supplements on the market that provides a source of organically grown st. john’s wort in its capsules. Each serving contains 800 mg of St. John’s Wort extract (aerial) with 2.7 mg (.2%) of hypericin per serving.

Not only is it effective, (research suggests a range from 900 mg – 1800 mg with .2% – .3% hypericin) it comes in straight forward, excipient-free vegetarian-friendly capsule. Our own research and data points toward higher quality when brands go with a plant based capsule over gelatin. 

It’s a worthy choice if you are someone who appreciates quality and prefer to keep it that way even with your St. John’s wort supplement.

Key Features
  • 800 mg of St. John’s Wort extract (aerial) with 2.7 mg (.2%) of hypericin per serving.
  • Simple 2 two ingredient formula - st john's wort and vegetable cellulose capsule
  • Lab verified for its identity, potency and purity
  • Effective dosage that doesn't sacrifice quality
Pros
  • Non-gelatin capsules
  • Zero extra ingredients
  • Plant based capsules
  • Organic st john wort
Cons
  • California prop 65
  • Plastic container
Recap

Solaray Organic St. John’s Wort is a good supplement made by a brand that you can find very easily at many vitamin stores around the USA. Its made with an organic quality herb giving it an edge over competition. 

Most notable features: Organic st. john’s wort that also brings the effectiveness you need to get the benefits you are after. 800 mg with .2% hypericin is a great dosage.

Why we like it: Fun brand, cool packaging, organic ingredients, simple formula, no filler ingredients, just the st john wort and a plant based capsule. 

How to make the most of it: The brand offers a 60 day money back guarantee which means you can give it a try for almost no risk. It price is already very affordable so this makes the deal even better. 

Also consider: For another st john’s wort supplement that is simple and of quality like this one, check out BlueBonnet St. John’s Wort Flower Extract

3. Solgar St John’s Wort

Solgar St John’s Wort recorded 300 mg of St. John’s Wort extract (aerial) with 1 mg (.3%) of hypericin per serving.

This effective dose of 1 mg of hypericin provides an array of benefits that st john wort has to offer. This supplement does hold a few other ingredients that you won’t see in higher ranking products, such as vegetable magnesium stearate, aside from the other ingredients, this product is still pretty solid. 

Key Features
  • 1350 mg of St. John’s Wort extract (flowering tops and buds) with 2.7 mg (.2%) of hypericin per serving.
  • Vegan and Vegetarian friendly ingredient formula
  • Made at their Certified Organic farm in NC, USA.
  • Every 3 capsules contains 2,250 mg of dry herb equivalent
Pros
  • Standardized to ensure effectiveness
  • Light weight active ingredient formula
  • Good packaging, glass container, trusted brand
  • Vegetarian friendly
Cons
  • Does have extra 'other' ingredients that may be off putting to some users
Recap​

Solgar is just a brand that has been around forever. You’ll always notice their brown or green glass containers at the local Vitamin Shoppe. 

Most notable features: Affordable and fairly potent ingredient formula.

Why we like it: No gelatin capsules, and can be found in many local vitamin stores. 

How to make the most of it: The dosage of the st john wort is on the lower side, give it a try and follow supplement directions til you find what works for you.

Also consider: For another extract based st john wort that has slightly less ‘other’ ingredients, check out Eclectic Institute St. John’s Wort. Their freeze dried st. john’s wort is unique and one of a kind. 

4. Pure Mountain Botanicals St. John’s Wort

Pure Mountain Botanicals St. John’s Wort is a simple, clean, and straight forward st. john’s wort supplement that delivers 450 mg of St. John’s Wort with .9 mg (.3%) of hypericin per serving.

The main draw to this brand is its super clean and simple formula. No fillers, no plastic bottle, nothing. Just the herb and a plant based capsule. That is it. 

The only issue you may find is that the brand can be hard to find if you are not online.

Key Features
  • Recorded 450 mg of St. John’s Wort with .9 mg (.3%) of hypericin per serving.
  • Clean ingredient formula, no random extras
  • Vegan Kosher Capsules
  • Covered by a no-questions asked money back guarantee.
Pros
  • Vegan friendly capsules (no gelatin)
  • Filler free ingredient formula
  • Capsules are easy to take
  • NO Magnesium Stearate, NO GMOs
Cons
  • Low availability if not shopping online
Recommendations

Pure Mountain Botanicals St. John’s Wort is a good product. Its made by a smaller brand so you won’t hear too much about them. However, the quality is there and they can be a great alternative to some of the other bigger brands like Gaia Herbs. 

Most notable features: Very simple and basic ingredient formula. Nothing to hide, the brand is just selling you st johns wort in a capsule. 

Why we like it: Glass container, simple formula. Everything you are looking for, nothing you don’t need. 

How to make the most of it: If you are searching for the best st john’s wort for you, you will have to try out this brand for yourself to see if it vibes with you. The formula is effective and the ingredient profile is spotless. 

Also consider: It could be fun to give this brand a try, however, our #1 ranking st john wort supplement can do the same job if not better. Give Gaia Herbs St. John’s Wort a try before experimenting with other brands. 

5. Oregon’s Wild Harvest St. John’s Wort

Oregon’s Wild Harvest St. John’s Wort recorded 1050 mg of St. John’s Wort extract (flowering buds) with 3.15 mg (.3%) of hypericin per serving. 

Its a good formula, its clean, effective, and straight to the point. The brand even did a huge overall in the past year or so, switching from plastic container to the all new glass ones you see above. 

Key Features
  • 1050 mg of St. John’s Wort extract (flowering buds) with 3.15 mg (.3%) of hypericin per serving.
  • Manufactured in USA
  • Product verified Non-GMO
Pros
  • Straight to the point formula
  • Cleanest bovine based capsules on the market
  • Certified organic st. johns wort flowering tops used in formula
Cons
  • Bovine capsules which may not be suitable for all users
Recommendations

Oregon’s Wild Harvest St. John’s Wort is a good product made by a trusted brand that has done many things to bring quality herbal supplements to the market. 

Most notable features: Bovine capsules are just something you don’t see often. That being said, if you don’t mind non-plant based capsules, this supplement has one of the cleanest ingredient formulas you’ll find. 

Why we like it: Good brand. Gluten free, Non-GMO, affordable. 

How to make the most of it: This brand can be on the expensive side and it can add up if you aren’t paying attention. The value is there so if you have the money and find that the brand works for you, its a green light from us too. 

Also consider: Our first ranking product Gaia Herbs St. John’s Wort is a bit more…’find-able’. You can find it in a lot of stores as well as every online vendor you could probably think of. If you aren’t sure which to try first, our #1 pick is always a good starting point.

6. Now Foods St. John’s Wort

Now Foods St. John’s Wort is one of those supplements made by a brand that you always see when searching through the online world for supplements. Their St.John’s Wort is okay , many other ‘review’ websites would say Now Foods is a top brand, which is true in some ways.

The effectiveness recorded 300 mg of St. John’s Wort extract (aerial part with flowers) with .9 mg (.3%) of hypericin per serving. Which is pretty decent when it comes to potency per capsule. 

The ingredients is where the quality starts to go down a bit. The capsules are veggie based which is a good news, however, their ‘other’ ingredients reads, Rice Flour, Silica and Magnesium Stearate (vegetable source). Which many of the other top ranking st. john’s wort supplements don’t. It does allow the brand to drop the price and preserve shelf life, but there is always a cost.

 

Key Features
  • 300 mg of St. John’s Wort extract (aerial part with flowers) with .9 mg (.3%) of hypericin per serving.
  • Made by a long-standing reliable brand
  • Kosher, GMP Assured, Non-GMO
  • Gluten free and vegan friendly formula
Pros
  • Vegan friendly capsules (no gelatin)
  • Filler free ingredient formula
  • Capsules are easy to take
  • Trusted supplement brand that can be found easily in many retail stores
Cons
  • Formula does contain Rice Flour, Silicon Dioxide and Magnesium Stearate
Recommendations

If you are looking for something that is mid-range between quality and affordability, Now Foods St. John’s Wort could be what you are looking for. It doesn’t do the greatest with providing the cleanest ingredient profile but it still does an okay job. 

Most notable features: Cheap price for an effectively dosed formula. Vegan, kosher, and vegetarian friendly. 

Why we like it: Even though it lacks in some places, the brand still does a good job of delivering solid product to the market. Overall its a very well trusted brand that’s used by many. 

How to make the most of it: Now Foods St. John’s Wort can be used as a decent entry point to testing out this herb for yourself. It can be found almost anywhere on the internet. 

Also consider: Our #1 ranking product, Gaia Herbs St. John’s Wort is similar to this brand in terms of trust and likability, however, Gaia herbs formula is a bit more well put together. 

7. Vital Nutrients Hypericum

Vital Nutrients Hypericum offers one of the most straightforward sources of st. johns wort extract. This brand has grown in popularity over the years for offering a supplement without all the fillers. 

These vegetable based capsules recorded 600 mg of St. John’s Wort extract (flowering tops and buds) with 1.8 mg (.3%) of hypericin per serving. If it didn’t have a small amount of silica in its ‘other ingredients’ it would have ranked higher on our st. johns wort list. 

Key Features
  • 600 mg of St. John’s Wort extract (flowering tops and buds) with 1.8 mg (.3%) of hypericin per serving.
  • Clean formula that is vegetarian friendly
  • No soy, binders, or coatings
  • All ingredients are lab tested in the United States
Pros
  • Vegetable cellulose capsules
  • No binder ingredients
  • Potent extract formula
Cons
  • Does contain silica which some users prefer not to see in their herbal supplements
Recommendations

One of the better brands that you can find amazon, Vital Nutrients Hypericum brings a highly potent st. johns wort to the market.

Most notable features: Its potent extract formula may be better suited for users looking for something on the stronger side.

Why we like it: Trusted brand, veggie capsules, lab tested, effective formula.

8. New Chapter St. John’s Force

Back in the day, New Chapter when under its original management produced their St. John’s Force, which at the time was one of the first st john wort products on the market. However recent changes has made this product obsolete. 

The only reason we still rank it on this list is because there are still some on the market, so we still want to inform users when they come across it. 

Key Features
  • recorded 1170 mg of St. John’s Wort extract (flower) with a 24 mg proprietary blend of hypericin and hyperforin per serving.
  • Gluten Free + BSE free capsules
  • Potent extract blend
  • Every 2 softgels contain 9,009 mg of dry herb equivalent a 7.7:1 ratio
Pros
  • Vegan friendly capsules (no gelatin)
  • Filler free ingredient formula
  • Halal friendly gelatin capsules
Cons
  • Expensive
  • Hard to find/discontinued
  • Gelatin based capsules
  • Soy lecithin and yellow beeswax
Recommendations

We decided to place this supplement on our ranking list just until all products are off the market, since New Chapter has discontinued this from their herbal line. You can see how a couple years ago, gelatin capsules were the norm. 

Most notable features: The highly potent extract formula used to be one of the strongest on the market. However St. john wort fell in popularity, but just recently has seen its popularity rise once again. 

Why we like it: Good potency that is made from a highly respected brand in the supplement industry. 

How to make the most of it: Be sure to double check the expiration date as this product isn’t made by the brand any longer (currently)

Also consider: For another extract brand that uses gelatin capsules take a look out at Puritan’s Pride St. John’s Wort Standardized Extract.

9. Nature’s Way St. John’s Wort

Nature’s Way is just one of those brands you’ve grown up with. It’s always been there on the shelf at almost every grocery store you’ve visited. Each capsule recorded 700 mg of St. John’s Wort (stem,leaf,flower) per serving. 

When it comes to overall effectiveness, this supplement might be on the weaker side. This can be perfect for individuals who are sensitive to basically anything. Lower dosed st john’s wort may be just what you’re looking for. Thus, this is why this brand is on our list. 

Clean ingredient formula that is wrapped up in a plant based capsule (hypromellose) and cellulose. Nothing else hiding in these capsules, simple, clean, and transparent. The brand is going through some recent re-packaging of their supplements, be on the look out for their new packaging. 

Key Features
  • St. John’s Wort/Serving 700 mg
  • Very affordable + new modern packaging
  • Simple straight forward formula
Pros
  • Veggie capsules
  • Filler free ingredient formula
  • Capsules are easy to take
  • Trusted supplement brand that can be found easily in many retail stores
Cons
  • Lower overall strength and effectiveness
Recommendations

Overall Nature’s Way St. John’s Wort is a simple and straight forward supplement that may come in handy when you’re traveling or away from home as it can be found in many retail stores around the United States.

Most notable features: Its the clean ingredient profile. Even though its considered less potent than other brands on the market, the brand still does a good job of keeping the quality high. 

Why we like it: Keeps the quality of the capsules as plant based which we rated highly during our review process. Gelatin capsules are a thing of the past. 

How to make the most of it: If you are on the go or out of town and need something quick to give you a little boost, this supplement can come in handy since it can be found off-line fairly easily. 

Also consider: For something a little stronger in its potency check out MRM St. John’s Wort, as they offer a slightly more potent extract. 

10. Nutrigold St. John’s Wort Gold

Nutrigold St. John’s Wort Gold  recorded 300 mg of St. John’s Wort extract (flowering tops and buds) with .9 mg (.3%) of hypericin and 9 mg (3%) of hyperforin per serving.

A powerful and effective smaller dosed supplement that brings tons of quality, certifications, and non-GMO ingredients to the market place. This brand has gone through a change since we first reviewed it a few years back. 

They have upgraded their container from plastic to all glass and improved the quality of their supplement. The quality, ingredient formula, and effectiveness is all here. These vegetarian friendly capsules are free of corn, egg, milk, peanut, shellfish, and soy allergens which the brand does independent lab testing to ensure quality control. 

The ingredient formula is pretty straight forward, no magnesium stearate, no artificial ingredients, no preservatives,  or dioxides. This scores them a high rating in their ingredient score. However, the downside with their formula is the tapioca maltodextrin found under the “other ingredients”. Some users prefer not to have any form of maltodextrin. 

Key Features
  • 300 mg of St. John’s Wort extract (flowering tops and buds) with .9 mg (.3%) of hypericin and 9 mg (3%) of hyperforin per serving.
  • non-GMO Vegetarian friendly ingredient profile
  • No magnesium stearate or other low quality filler ingredients
  • Trusted branding and glass packaging
Pros
  • Solid dosage of ingredients
  • Clean ingredient profile with no fillers
  • Capsules are plant based
  • Nutrigold St. John’s Wort Gold​ has been on the market for quite some time
Cons
  • Contains tapioca maltodextrin
Recommendations

Nutrigold St. John’s Wort Gold is a good supplement and is worth a try if you’re experimenting with different brands. It has the quality ingredients we looked for during our review process. It’s packaged well and made by a trusted brand. .

Most notable features: At first glance its the simple ingredient formula that contains an effective and properly labeled amount of st. johns wort along with the percentages of hypericin and hyperforin. 

Why we like it: Decent quality, affordable, can use amazon prime to try it out within a day or two. 

How to make the most of it: Its affordable so don’t skimp on the dosage. 300 mg of st johns wort per capsule falls short of what research studies used during testing, which is closer to at least 900 mg. 

Also consider: For another st johns wort that has a similar ingredient profile, quality, and effectiveness check out plnt St. Johns Wort  which is a brand made by The Vitamin Shoppe.

How We Ranked

Over the last 5 years or so, onlinestrength.com has gathered data and reviewed 48 st johns wort supplements. During our review process we looked at 3 different main factors and gave each supplement a star rating score out of 5 (1-5). A total average score is added up and the product receives a final ‘overall rating’ out of 5. 

Ingredients – All st john’s wort supplements require the highest quality ingredients to be the most healthy and effective. Without the right ingredients, your st john’s wort supplement won’t do the job you purchased it for and even worse, it may give you a bad first impression on this herb. We took a close look at all the ingredients inside every st johns wort supplement we reviewed. Products that failed to provide high quality active ingredients were penalized, supplements containing ANY filler at all received rating penalties.  Products that received a perfect score during their review were deemed superior in quality and had little to no fillers. 

Effectiveness – Supplements that did not meet science backed research studies recommended ingredient dosage were penalized in their effectiveness rating. Products containing any filler or preservative ingredients were penalized too. Have unnecessary fillers or additives could harm digestion which in return may lower the overall effectiveness. 

Quality – During our review process we looked at where (if available) the product grew and manufactured their st johns wort. Supplements that used low quality st johns wort were penalized. Products containing poor quality or filler ingredients were penalized in their quality ratings. Simple things like not using a glass container were things we did not overlook during our review. 

Summary

Best St. John's Wort

St. John’s Wort (hypericum perforatum) is a flowering plant that is found in most parts of the world and has been used as a medicinal herb for the treatment of many healthy aliments. Supplemented primarily for its anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory properties.

St. John’s Wort supplementation is also linked to reduction in fatigue, stress, socially induced anxiety, and troubled sleeping.

Hypericin and Hyperforin are the psychoactive components of the plant, a natural compound which nutritionally benefits and supports emotional health.

Uses

Over the last few years St. John’s Wort has seen an explosion in popularity. Similar to CBD oil, st johns wort has received praise for its anti-depression and anxiety effects.

The major constituents in st johns wort such as hypericin, hyperforin, and other flavonoids give this herb its antidepressant and anti anxiety actions.

**Recently many depression test do a ‘morning depression cure’ that includes a st. johns wort tea for depression. Which users brew st johns wort tea either the night before or early morning for as a hot tea.

Benefits

  • Anxiety – A double blind study using st. john’s wort showed a reduction in anxiety. Feel less social anxiety and pressure. This is why recently the use of st john’s wort for panic attacks caused by socially induced anxiety has been on the rise.
  • Depression – Heavily tested in Germany for its anti-depression benefits for mild to moderate depression. Showed improvements in mood, and helped symptoms of sadness and hopelessness. The bulk of the research done on st john’s wort shows that it can be an effective treatment for mild to moderate depression.
  • Eczema – A cream containing st. johns wort used in a research study showed a great improvement in the severity of eczema. This may be due to saint john’s wort anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects.
  • Menopause and Depression – An improvement in menopausal and depression symptoms after women supplemented a combination of black cohosh and st. johns wort.
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder – A significant overall improvement was seen in patients of a study who were given st. john’s wort for SAD. A double blind study will need to be done to confirm the effect that St. johns wort has on SAD.
  • Cold Sores – Used in herbal medicine to help promote the healing of a herpes outbreak.
  • Ear Infections – May help alleviate symptoms such as pain caused by acute ear infections. A combination of mullein, St. John’s wort, and garlic were used.
  • Wound Healing – Traditional herbalists say that a topical use of st. john’s wort can be used to speed up wound healing. However it should be known that no clinical trials on humans has been done to validate this claim.

Side Effects

St. John’s wort, according to research studies, does have a few side effects that you should be aware of. Remember taking the best brand of St. John’s wort will help eliminate some of the more ‘common’ side-effects such as tiredness, stomach distress, dizziness, and confusion.

The more quality the herb used in your supplement, the less pesticides used during the cultivation of the herb/plant, keep in mind the freshness of the herb as well. Herbal supplements like St. John’s wort do have a long shelf life but always make sure your supplements are not expired as this can cause unnecessary side-effects.

A study showed that users who supplemented with st. john’s wort had adverse interactions with sunlight, making the user more sensitive. One user stated that she forgot her tea contained st john wort and couldn’t figure out why the sun was irritating her that day. Later she found out that st john wort has a chance to cause sunlight sensitivity.

Several studies warned users with a history of manic-depression illness (bipolar disorder or hypomania) to avoid supplementation of st john wort because it may trigger a manic episode. It should be noted that even the most reliable brands of st. john’s wort won’t stop adverse reactions to occur.

One single report showed that st johns wort caused high blood pressure in a older man in his late 50s. Once he got off the herbal st. john’s wort supplement his blood pressure returned to normal.

It should be noted that taking a high quality st.johns wort tincture is viewed as the superior method since tinctures hold a longer shelf life, potentially eliminating side effects caused by old or expired old st.johns wort.

Interactions

St john’s wort is known for having a low incidence side effects when compared to other anti-depressant treatments. Users of st johns wort had less fatigue, itching, and upset stomach.

However, st john’s wort has not been extensively researched yet, so be aware that there are many possible drug interactions with St. John’s wort. The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health shared that st. johnswort can have interactions with anti-depressants, oral contraceptives, anti-seizure medications, and anticoagulants.

This means that your birth control pills might decrease in effectiveness while supplementing with st. johns wort. This is because st. john wort is known for possibly increasing the breakdown of estrogen.

How to Take

Standard dosage of St. John’s wort: 900 mg – 1800 mg of (hypericum perforatum) extract (standardized to contain 0.3% hypericin) taken in divided doses daily. For those of you who are wondering when is the best time to take st john’s wort research suggests 500–1,050 mg of St. John’s wort extract per day preferably at the same time everyday, some users like taking it in the mornings and others prefer to take it a few hours before bed.

Again this dosage range is said to be the best st john’s wort dosage for anxiety, 500 mg to 1,050 mg of an extract per day.  More human studies are needed to really determine the most optimal dosage for anxiety benefits.

Typical results are said to come within two to three weeks time, which is considered to be relatively quick when it comes to herbal supplements. Which st john’s wort brand is the best all depends on your goals. Higher dosed extracts tend to be stronger but can be too overwhelming for some users.

Products that contain hyperforin instead of hypericin should contain 2% – 3% hyperforin.

St. John’s wort does not need to be taken with food unless you experience stomach discomfort then you switch to taking it with food. Users often suggest finding a brand or company that makes the best st john’s wort in liquid form because liquid extracts tend to be stronger and more effective.

Although product recommendations are only our opinions, this evidence-based review has been fact-checked against the most current scientific research papers.